SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation and Use of Estimates—The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements at September 30, 2018 and for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2018 are unaudited, but include all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring entries, that management believes to be necessary for a fair presentation of the periods presented. Prior period figures have been reclassified, wherever necessary, to conform to current presentation. Interim results are not necessarily indicative of results for a full year. Balance sheet amounts as of December 31, 2017 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements as of that date.
The condensed consolidated financial statements included herein have been prepared by us pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or U.S. GAAP, have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. The financial statements should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017. Our operating results will fluctuate for the foreseeable future. Therefore, period-to-period comparisons should not be relied upon as predictive of the results in future periods.
The accompanying financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or U.S. GAAP. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal accruals) considered for a fair presentation have been included. Significant estimates made in preparing these financial statements include (a) assumptions to calculate the fair values of financial instruments, warrants and equity instruments and other liabilities and the deferred tax asset valuation allowance and (b) the useful lives for depreciable and amortizable assets. Actual results could differ from those estimates. In the opinion of management, all adjustments, including normal recurring accruals considered necessary for a fair presentation, have been included.
Consolidation —The accompanying financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiary, GVR Trade, S.A. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
Cash and Cash Equivalents—We consider all liquid instruments purchased with a maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Concentration of Credit Risk—We maintain bank accounts at one U.S. financial institution. The U.S. bank accounts are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) for up to $250,000 per account owner. GVR Trade S.A., our wholly owned Swiss-based subsidiary maintains checking accounts at one major national financial institution. Additionally, we maintain a checking account with a very minimal balance at one bank in South Korea, which is used to fund payroll and rent in South Korea. Management believes we are not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial position of the depository institutions in which our deposits are held.
Restricted Cash—Restricted cash at December 31, 2017 consisted of a $100,000 certificate of deposit with a financial institution, which served as collateral for our corporate credit cards. During the nine months ended September 30, 2018 we terminated the corporate credit card program for which the certificate of deposit was held and thus the restriction was lifted. As of September 30, 2018 our restricted cash balance consists of a $211,000 pledged mutual fund account which is held as collateral against a letter of credit issued in May 2018 in connection with the lease of our corporate headquarters. Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash, which requires that the statement of cash flows explain the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents, and amounts generally described as restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. Consequently, restricted cash is included in the beginning and ending cash balances on the statement of cash flows. See also Note 9- Commitments and Contingencies, for further details.
Investments—Securities held-to-maturity: Management determines the appropriate classification of securities at the time of purchase and reevaluates such designation as of each balance sheet date. Investment/debt securities are classified as held-to-maturity when we have the positive intent and ability to hold the securities to maturity. Held-to-maturity securities are stated at amortized cost, adjusted for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity computed under the effective interest method. Such amortization is included in investment income. Interest on securities classified as held-to-maturity is included in interest and investment income.
When the fair value of an investment instrument classified as held-to-maturity is less than its amortized cost, management assesses whether or not: (i) we have the intent to sell the instrument or (ii) it is more likely than not that we will be required to sell the instrument before its anticipated recovery. If either of these conditions is met, we must recognize an other-than-temporary impairment for the difference between the instrument’s amortized cost basis and its fair value, and include such amounts in net securities gains (losses).
For investment instruments that do not meet the above criteria and are not expected to be recovered at the amortized cost basis, the instrument is considered other-than-temporarily impaired. For these instruments, we separate the total impairment into the credit loss component and the amount of the loss related to other factors. In order to determine the amount of the credit loss, we calculate the recovery value by performing a discounted cash flow analysis based on the current cash flows and future cash flows management expects to recover. The discount rate is the effective interest rate implicit in the underlying instrument. The amount of the total other-than-temporary impairment related to credit loss is recognized in earnings and is included in net securities gains (losses). The amount of the total other-than-temporary impairment related to other factors is recognized in other comprehensive income. For investment instruments that have other-than-temporary impairment recognized through earnings, if through subsequent evaluation there is a significant increase in the cash flow expected, the difference between the amortized cost basis and the cash flows expected to be collected is accreted as interest income.
During 2017, we invested in commercial papers and certificates of deposit that were classified as held-to-maturity. Additionally, we maintained money market fund balances that were classified as cash and cash equivalents. As of September 30, 2017, all of the investments had matured and there were no investments classified as held-to-maturity. We recorded investment income of $14,000 and $39,000 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, respectively, associated with the investments.
During 2018, we invested in U.S. Treasury bills, commercial papers and a certificate of deposit that were classified as investments held-to-maturity. Additionally, we maintained money market fund balances that were classified as cash and cash equivalents. As of September 30, 2018, the amortized cost value and fair value are $8.9 million with zero unrealized gain or loss. U.S. Treasury bills totaling $25.0 million matured in April 2018 and certain commercial papers totaling $14.7 million matured during the nine months ended September 30, 2018. Remaining commercial papers totaling $8.8 million mature in January 2019, and the certificate of deposit for $100,000 matures in January 2019. We have not recognized an other-than-temporary impairment gain or loss or a comprehensive gain or loss-to-date. We recorded interest and investment income of $177,000 and $323,000 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, respectively, associated with our cash and investment accounts.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments—We measure certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value based on the exit price notion, or price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability, in an orderly transaction between the market participants at the measurement date. The carrying amounts of our financial instruments, including cash equivalents, restricted cash, investments held-to-maturity, accounts payable, and accrued liabilities, approximate fair value due to their short maturities.
Accounts Receivable—Trade accounts receivable are stated net of allowances for doubtful accounts. Management estimates the allowance for doubtful accounts based on review and analysis of specific customer balances that may not be collectible, customer payment history and any other customer-specific information that may impact ability to collect the receivable. Accounts are considered for write-off when they become past due and when it is determined that the probability of collection is remote. There was no allowance for doubtful accounts at December 31, 2017 and September 30, 2018.
Property and Equipment—Property and equipment consists of leasehold improvements associated with our corporate offices, software purchased during the normal course of business, equipment and office furniture and fixtures, all of which are recorded at cost. Depreciation and amortization is recorded using the straight-line method over the respective useful lives of the assets ranging from three to six years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of lease term or useful life. Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of these assets may not be recoverable.
Intangible Assets, net —Intangible assets are recorded at cost and amortized over the useful life. In the case of business combinations, intangible assets are recorded at fair value. At December 31, 2017 and September 30, 2018, intangible assets, net, includes patents and a domain name and other intangible assets purchased as part of our acquisition of GVR, including customer relationships, technology and a trademark. Intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of these assets may not be recoverable. In certain cases, patents may expire or are abandoned as we no longer plan to pursue them. In such cases we write off the capitalized patent costs as patent abandonment costs which are included in research and development expenses. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, we wrote off $39,000 and $87,000, respectively, related to expired and abandoned patents.
Goodwill—At December 31, 2017 and September 30, 2018, goodwill represents the difference between the price paid to acquire GVR and the fair value of the assets acquired, net of assumed liabilities. We review goodwill for impairment annually and whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of these assets may not be recoverable.
Revenue Recognition—As of January 1, 2018, we recognize revenue in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.
Revenue is recognized upon the transfer of control of promised goods or services to the customers in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive in exchange for those products or services. Revenue consists primarily of fees received in connection with filter design projects with customers. Our performance obligation is to design a licensable filter in accordance with customer specifications. The license of the completed design is considered part of this performance obligation as the design and licensing of the filter are highly interdependent. We recognize revenue over the course of the design development phase as our customers are able to benefit from our design services as they are provided, primarily by marketing the in-process design to their customers. We recognize revenue from our design services based on efforts expended to date. At the end of each reporting period, we reassess our measure of progress and adjust revenue when appropriate.
In most cases, our design services are performed over a period of six to twelve months. Contracts generally include upfront non-refundable fees, intended to support our initial engineering product development efforts, as well as milestone payments based upon the successful completion of certain deliverables. Milestone payments represent variable consideration, and we use the "most likely amount" approach to determine the amount we ultimately expect to receive. At contract inception, we assess the likelihood of achieving milestones to estimate the total consideration we believe we will receive for our services. Our design service contracts also include a functional license over the completed design, which enables our customer to use our design in products marketed to their customers. We also earn royalties for each product shipped by our customer that incorporates one of our designs. Royalty fees are recorded upon shipment by our customer, and payment is generally due within 30 days.
We record the expenses related to these projects in the periods incurred and they are generally included in research and development expense.
During the three months ended September 30, 2017 and September 30, 2018, we recorded revenue of $106,000 and $115,000, respectively. During the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and September 30, 2018, we recorded revenue of $482,000 and $396,000, respectively. As of September 30, 2018, we have recorded $187,000 in deferred revenue. See Note 3- Revenue Recognition, for further details.
Research and Development—Costs and expenses that can be clearly identified as research and development are charged to expense as incurred in accordance with ASC Topic 730-10, Research and Development.
Operating Leases—We lease office space and research facilities under operating leases. Certain lease agreements contain free or escalating rent payment provisions. We recognize rent expense under such leases on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Lease renewal periods are considered on a lease-by-lease basis in determining the lease term.
Stock-Based Compensation—We account for employee stock options in accordance with ASC Topic 718, Compensation-Stock Compensation. For stock options issued to employees and directors we use the Black-Scholes option valuation model for estimating fair value at the date of grant. For stock options issued for services rendered by non-employees, we recognize compensation expense in accordance with the requirements of ASC Topic 505-50, Equity, or ASC 505-50, as amended. Non-employee option grants that do not vest immediately upon grant are recorded as an expense over the vesting period. At the end of each financial reporting period prior to performance, the value of these options, as calculated using the Black-Scholes option valuation model, is determined, and compensation expense recognized or recovered during the period is adjusted accordingly. Since the fair market value of options granted to non-employees is subject to change in the future, the amount of the future compensation expense is subject to adjustment until the common stock options or warrants are fully vested.
We account for restricted stock units issued to employees at fair value, based on the market price of our stock on the date of grant, net of estimated forfeitures. Compensation expense is recognized for the portion of the award that is ultimately expected to vest over the period during which the recipient renders the required services to the Company generally using the straight-line single option method. The fair value of non-employee restricted stock units awarded are remeasured as the awards vest, and the resulting increase or decrease in fair value, if any, is recognized as an increase or decrease to compensation expense in the period the related services are rendered.
In the case of award modifications, we account for the modification in accordance with ASU No. 2017-09, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting, whereby we recognize the effect of the modification in the period the award is modified.
Stock-based compensation expense is included in research and development expenses and general and administrative expenses.
Earnings Per Share, or EPS—EPS is computed in accordance with ASC Topic 260, Earnings per Share, and is calculated using the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during each period. Diluted EPS assumes the conversion, exercise or issuance of all potential common stock equivalents unless the effect is to reduce a loss or increase the income per share. Potential common shares consist of the incremental common shares issuable upon the exercise of stock options (using the treasury stock method), the exercise of warrants (using the if-converted method) and the vesting of restricted stock unit awards.
The following table presents the number of shares excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders for the periods below:
Income Taxes—We account for income taxes in accordance with ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes, or ASC 740, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future consequences of events that have been recognized in our condensed consolidated financial statements or tax returns. The measurement of the deferred items is based on enacted tax laws. In the event the future consequences of differences between financial reporting bases and the tax bases of our assets and liabilities result in a deferred tax asset, ASC 740 requires an evaluation of the probability of being able to realize the future benefits indicated by such asset. A valuation allowance related to a deferred tax asset is recorded when it is more likely than not that some portion or the entire deferred tax asset will not be realized. As part of the process of preparing our consolidated financial statements, we are required to estimate our income tax expense in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate. We also assess temporary differences resulting from differing treatment of items for tax and accounting differences. We record a valuation allowance to reduce the deferred tax assets to the amount of future tax benefit that is more likely than not to be realized. For the period when we were organized as a limited liability company, we were treated as a partnership for federal and state income tax purposes under the entity classification domestic default rules. As of December 31, 2017 and September 30, 2018, no liability for unrecognized tax benefits was required to be reported. We recognize interest and penalties related to income tax matters in income taxes, and there were none for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2018.
We have filed, or are in the process of filing, tax returns that are subject to audit by the respective tax authorities. Although the ultimate outcome would be unknown, we believe that any adjustments that may result from tax return audits are not likely to have a material, adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations, financial position or cash flows.
Foreign Currency Translation—The Swiss Franc has been determined to be the functional currency for the net assets of our Swiss-based subsidiary. We translate the assets and liabilities to U.S. dollars at each reporting period using exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date and record the effects of the foreign currency translation in accumulated other comprehensive loss in shareholders' equity. We translate the income and expenses to U.S. dollars at each reporting period using the average exchange rate in effect for the period and record the effects of the foreign currency translation as other comprehensive loss in the consolidated statements of comprehensive loss. Gains and losses resulting from foreign currency transactions are included in net loss in the consolidated statements of comprehensive loss.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Leases—In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), a comprehensive new leases standard that amends various aspects of existing accounting guidance for leases. It will require recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. The main difference between previous U.S. GAAP and the amended standard is the recognition of lease assets and lease liabilities by lessees on the balance sheet for those leases classified as operating leases under previous U.S. GAAP. The accounting applied by a lessor is largely unchanged from that applied under previous U.S. GAAP. As a result, we will have to recognize a liability to make lease payments (the lease liability) and a right-of-use asset representing our right to use the underlying asset for the lease term on the balance sheet. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-10, Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases, which provides clarity to certain narrow aspects of the new standard and ASU 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements, which provides an optional transition method for adopting the new leases guidance that eliminates comparative period reporting under the new guidance in the year of adoption. . The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. We plan to adopt the standard, as well as the practical expedients included therein, as of January 1, 2019. We have reviewed our leases and other agreements in order to determine the effects of the new guidance on our consolidated financial statements. We have determined that we have two facility leases that meet the criteria for recognition of lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet under the new guidance. We are not party to any leases for which we are the lessor. We believe the adoption will cause us to recognize a significant right-of-use asset as well as the related lease liability in our consolidated financial statements.
Intangibles-Goodwill and Other—In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, which simplifies the accounting for goodwill impairments by eliminating step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. The amended guidance will become effective for us commencing in the first quarter of fiscal 2019. We plan to adopt the standard as of January 1, 2019 and we do not believe there will be any material impact to our consolidated financial statements.
Compensation-Stock Compensation—In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Non-employee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which intends to align the accounting of share-based payment awards issued to employees and non-employees. This update will be effective for annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. We plan to adopt the standard as of January 1, 2019 and we do not believe there will be any material impact to our consolidated financial statements as we have very few share-based payment arrangements with non-employees.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef